A Copyright is an
exclusive right given by law for a term of years
to an author, designer, etc. for his/her
- Making photocopies for private
use is not an infringement of copyright.
- Copying a public speech or a
lecture does not constitute Infringement.
- No infringement results if work
is acknowledged, when one is copying or citing
from another author’s work.
- Generally, in respect of
written material, the following guidelines
- Wherever possible, the author’s
permission should be sought to reproduce his /
- If in an article, paper or
speech, when referring to the work of another,
it is required that details of the reference be
provided in the form of the name of the author
and details of his/her publication i.e. title of
book or magazine, publisher, date of publication
- If only a small portion of the
work is used, say a few sentences or a
paragraph, and provided that an acknowledgement
is made, permission is not needed.
- If a "significant" section is
reproduced, such as a chapter, then permission
should be obtained.
- It is generally accepted that
work that is being used in academic
institutions, research or for private use may be
- Another contentious area is the
field of music.
- Clearly if you were to copy a
tape or a CD and sell this, it would represent
copyright infringement (referred to as
“pirating”) But when a Dee-Jay at a party plays
CD’s is copyright being infringed?
- As a general guide, copyright
infringement can be said to occur where the
copyrighted material of others is used for
personal gain as opposed to private or personal
- Copyright infringement does not
occur if you copy a public speech or lecture,
made for information purposes, or photocopy
government publications for public usage.
of copyright depends on the type of work
- The copyright of written works
lasts for 50 years after the writer has died.
- The copyright of computer
programs lasts for 50 years after the first
copies were made available to the public.
- For sound recordings, radio and
TV broadcasts, the copyright lasts for 50 years
from the day the work was first broadcast.
- For films, 50 years from when
first made / shown.